Calendar [Latin from Kalends], a system of reckoning time for the practical purpose of recording past events and calculating dates for future plans. The calendar is based on noting ordinary and easily observable natural events, the cycle of the sun through the seasons with equinox and solstice, and the recurrent phases of the moon.

These charts are in chronological order per each listed time period.

Below calendars correlates with the above time charts
Julian Calendar History

Lunar vs Solar - click to enlarge
War, The Sabbath & Maccabees